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The effect of disease states on drug pharmacokinetics

The effect of disease states on drug pharmacokinetics

What is drug distribution?

Distribution describes the movement of a drug from the bloodstream after absorption into the body’s tissues. As the drug circulates around the body, its movement into the tissues depends on a number of factors:

  • Solubility of the drug – lipid-soluble drugs tend to concentrate in adipose tissue and water-soluble drugs (eg atenolol) tend to concentrate in blood and interstitial fluid. The solubility also has an effect on the rate of distribution, with lipid-soluble drugs usually crossing membrane barriers at a quicker rate.
  • Protein binding – some drugs circulate freely in blood plasma and others are reversibly bound to proteins, mainly albumin, alpha-1 acid glycoprotein and lipoproteins. Only unbound drugs can readily cross cell membranes into the tissue where it exerts its action.
  • Regional blood flow –

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